Research Paper: Reasons of Subfertility
Subfertility can be caused by a variety of factors affecting either the male or the female partner and are thus termed as malefactors and female factors. Studies have shown that the most common causes of infertility can be attributed to female factors, approximately 20% of the cases of subfertility can be attributed to male factors exclusively and almost 27% to a combination of both male and female factors. (Wai Yee Wong, Thomas, Zielhuis, & Steegers-Theunissen, 2000, p. 435). For the purposes of simplification, clinicians have classified the causes of fertility into five broad subgroups viz. male subfertility, disturbances in ovulation, defects in spermatozoa-cervical mucus interaction, tuboperitoneal disorders, and unexplained subfertility (Evers, 2002, p. 153).
The male factors which can lead to infertility include absence of testicular tissue, as observed in anarchism; abnormalities in sperm production which can be attributed to various factors such as age especially greater than 55 years, genetic causes e.g. Klinefelter syndrome, nutritional deficiencies, varicocele, infections and environmental agents such as smoking, drug abuse, temperature and medications; Impaired sperm transport due to reasons such as epididymal blockage or ejaculatory failure and disturbances in sperm-oocyte fusion which can be brought about by the presence of abnormal egg-binding proteins (Wai Yee Wong, Thomas, Zielhuis, & Steegers-Theunissen, 2000, p. 437).