Socialism – China
Reform of socialist
The reform of socialist countries and the demise of socialism have received much attention, but the judgments of the elites and the people of those systems on the theory and practice of socialism remain little studied.
The Chinese reassessment is likely to contribute to a decline of ideological monopoly and the unilineal view of evolution on the one hand, and a decline of socialism as national goals and a new ideological skewing on the other. After the traumatic ending of the popular demonstrations in China in mid-1989, the conservative-dominated government immediately turned its propaganda on pinpointing a “small handful” of instigators that had allegedly exploited the good intentions of the masses to stage the overthrow of the socialist system and the Communist Party. The accused instigators, as it came to be identified in official accounts, included mainly reform theorists and intellectuals prominently associated with advocating the “reconceptualization” of socialism and capitalism in the economic, political and other spheres.
The direction in which this preconception has developed is now seen to have approached the negation of socialism and advocacy of bourgeois liberalism. It is this ideological position of those “counter-revolutionaries” on which post-June 4 official attacks have centered. They allegedly represent an intellectual and political trend in recent years that had advocated renouncing China’s socialist framework politically, economically, and ideologically. Official rhetoric surrounding the crackdown depicted the events of mid-1989 as essentially a battle between socialism and capitalism. As such, the crackdown is posited as the struggle for the survival of die socialist system and die Chinese revolution of 1949.