Stages of sociological research
Sociological research is always carried out logically sequentially at certain stages, at a specifically designated time.
The main stages of sociological research:
– Preparation of the research;
– Collection of primary sociological information;
– Preparation of collected information for processing and its processing;
– Analysis of processed information and drawing conclusions.
Preparation of the study. At this stage, a program of sociological research is compiled, and the research process is organized. If this is necessary, a working group is formed and responsibilities are assigned to the members of the group. Developed instructions for the primary information collection group. The question is solved with regard to the use of financial and material-technical means.
Contacts are established with the heads of institutions where the study will be conducted, and relationships with people at the facility are established. Among the respondents, explanatory work is carried out, which should be entrusted to the most communicative, pedagogical abilities of researchers.
Respondents are explained the purpose and objectives of the survey, the expected result and the possible nature of its use, and also ask them to help and take an active part in the survey. If the analysis of documents is used to gather information, then only those documents whose content is directly relevant to the social phenomena under study are selected. It is desirable, if necessary, to conduct a pilot study in order to test the methodology and technique of carrying out a sociological survey.
Replicated methodological tools for mass information gathering. A group for collecting primary information (questionnaires, interviewers, observers) is formed and instructed with them. Collection of primary sociological information. At this stage, information is collected about the problem situation.
The resulting material is processed in accordance with the developed research program, which indicates how information will be processed (manually or on a computer). At this stage, culling, encryption, coding, data perforation, transfer of information to machine-processing media, and machine processing itself occurs.
Mathematical-statistical methods are used for processing. Information can be fully or partially processed manually. The results of the treatment are given to the system of indicators and empirical indicators taking place in the program. After that, the obtained data is reduced to a table, they are represented graphically: in graphs, schemes, matrices, etc.
After the material is processed, the received documents, tables and results of observations are carefully studied. When analyzing the data obtained, a comparison is made between the results of the study for different units, groups, i.e. the information received from respondents with different social status, different social characteristics, attitudes and values, etc. is compared.