The Art Education
Education exists within the context of society, and the two bear specific relationships to each other. A viewpoint of education, especially in formal schooling, changes in the manner it responds to the values and needs of the society. Education may orient itself to the aims of maintaining the traditions and values of society, of meeting its contemporary pragmatic needs, of examining the nature of society in order to change it, or education may value the development of unique individuals as the basis of a healthy society.
The viewpoint of education in society at any particular time may combine the above functions and include others. In any case, viewpoints of education are value-based, which accounts for the evolution of education in society and its varied and divergent aims. Art education in schools has developed many different viewpoints of its relationship to society.
In the literature of art education today there are examples of art education responding to various values of society. One example is called “aesthetic education.” In this viewpoint, the educational emphasis is primarily for the student to understand and appreciate art as would an art historian, critic or collector— that is, primarily as a consumer of aesthetic experiences which have value in themselves.
Viewpoints of art education exist within the context of the relationship of education to society and the function of art in society through education. Different ways of integrating art and education within society and the function of such integrating are exemplified by various viewpoints of art education. The assumption that art is a process simply means that it is an activity, not a product. Art is real only as a special way of human acting.
The significance, meaning and effect of art upon the individual is this special kind of acting called art. Art as process is an activity of expression. It is assumed here that expression is not transcription or re-creation, but creation within the process of expression.